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Pain in Sickle Cell Disease (Sickle Cell Anemia)


Guideline for the management of acute and chronic pain in sickle cell disease (Clinical practice guideline; no. 1). Glenview (IL): American Pain Society; 1999. 

Hoffman R, Benz, EJ, editors.  Hematology: Basic Principles and Practice, 3rd edition. New York: Churchill-Livingston; 2000.  p. 524.

The Management of Sickle Cell Disease. National Institutes of Health National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.  NIH pub. 02-2117 revised June 2002.  Available from:

Marx, JA, Hockberger, RS, et al., editors.  Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice, 5th ed.  St Louis: Mosby;  2002.  p. 1678-79.

Nathan, DG, Orkin, SH, et al., editors.  Nathan and Oski’s Hematology of Infancy and Childhood, 5th ed.  Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders; 1998. p. 789-90 and 1732-33.

Stinson J, Naser B. Pain management in children with sickle cell disease. Paediatr Drugs. 2003;5(4):229-41.

Thomas JE, Koshy M, Patterson L, Dorn L, Thomas K. Management of pain in sickle cell disease using biofeedback therapy: a preliminary study.  Biofeedback Self Regul. 1984 Dec;9(4):413-20.

Wang WC, Helms RW, Lynn HS, et al.  Effect of hydroxyurea on growth in children with sickle cell anemia: results of the HUG-KIDS Study.  J Pediatr. 2002 Feb;140(2):225-9.

West DC, Romano PS, Azari R, Rudominer A, Holman M, Sandhu S. Impact of environmental tobacco smoke on children with sickle cell disease. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2003 Dec;157(12):1197-201.

Yaster M, Kost-Byerly S, Maxwell L.  The management of pain in sickle cell disease. Pediatr Clin North Am 2000 Jun;47(3):699-710

Written and compiled by Kyla Boyse, R.N. and Brendan P. Kelly, M.D.  Reviewed by Andrew D. Campbell, M.D.

Updated May 2009

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