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Second-Hand Smoke and Smoking During Pregnancy

Literature Cited:

[1]   EPA. Setting the Record Straight: Secondhand Smoke is a Preventable Health Risk. EPA Document Number 402-F-94-005, June 1994. Available from: Accessed 22 May 2008.
[2]   National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Press Release May 15, 2000. Available from: Accessed 22 May 2008.
[3]   EPA. What You Can Do About Secondhand Smoke as Parents, Decision-Makers, and Building Occupants. Office of Air and Radiation, Office of Radiation and Indoor Air, Indoor Environments Division (6609J). EPA Document Number 402-F-93-004, July 1993.
[4]   U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The Health Consequences of Involuntary Exposure to Tobacco Smoke: A Report of the Surgeon General-Executive Summary. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Coordinating Center for Health Promotion, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health; 2006.
[5]    West DC, Romano PS, Azari R, Rudominer A, Holman M, Sandhu S. Impact of environmental tobacco smoke on children with sickle cell disease. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2003 Dec;157(12):1197-201.
[6]    Jackson C, Dickinson D. Can parents who smoke socialise their children against smoking? Results from the Smoke-free Kids intervention trial.  Tob Control. 2003 Mar;12(1):52-9.
[7]    Jackson C, Dickinson D. Enabling parents who smoke to prevent their children from initiating smoking: results from a 3-year intervention evaluation. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2006 Jan;160(1):56-62.
[8]   Martin JA, et al. Births: Final Data for 2002. National Vital Statistics Reports, volume 52, number 10: 12 of 114, December 17, 2003.
[9]   Van Meurs, K. Cigarette smoking, pregnancy and the developing fetus. Stanford Medical Review 1999; Sep 5, Vol 1, Num 1:14-16.
[10]   U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Office of the Surgeon General. Women and smoking: A report of the Surgeon General. Rockville, MD; 2001.
[11]    Alm B, Milerad J, Wennergren G, Skjaerven R, Oyen N, Norvenius G, Daltveit AK, Helweg-Larsen K, Markestad T, Irgens LM. A case-control study of smoking and sudden infant death syndrome in the Scandinavian countries, 1992 to 1995. The Nordic Epidemiological SIDS Study. Arch Dis Child. 1998 Apr;78(4):329-34.  Available at:
[12]    MacDorman MF, Cnattingius S, Hoffman HJ, Kramer MS, Haglund B. Sudden infant death syndrome and smoking in the United States and Sweden. Am J Epidemiol. 1997 Aug 1;146(3):249-57.  Available at:
[13]    E Lannero E, Pershagen G, Wickman M, Nordvall L.  Maternal smoking during pregnancy increases the risk of recurrent wheezing during the first years of life.  Respir Res. 2006 Jan 5;7(1):3.
[14]    Burguet A, Kaminski M, Abraham-Lerat L, Schaal JP, Cambonie G, Fresson J, et al. EPIPAGE Study Group. The complex relationship between smoking in pregnancy and very preterm delivery.  Results of the Epipage study.  BJOG. 2004 Mar;111(3):258-65.
[15]    Olds D.  Tobacco exposure and impaired development: A review of the evidence. MRDD Res Rev 1997;3(3):257-269.
[16]    Raatikainen K, Huurinainen P, Heinonen S. Smoking in early gestation or through pregnancy: A decision crucial to pregnancy outcome. Prev Med. 2007 Jan;44(1):59-63. Epub 2006 Sep 7.
[17]    G Dempsey DA and Benowitz NL. Risks and benefits of nicotine to aid smoking cessation in pregnancy (review article), Drug Safety 2001 24(4):277-322
Written and compiled by Kyla Boyse, R.N.  Reviewed by Steven E. Gay, MD, MS.

Updated December 2008

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