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Pain and Your Infant: Medical Procedures, Circumcision and Teething


[1} Mitchell A, Boss, BJ.  Adverse effects of pain on the nervous systems of newborns and young children:  a review of the literature.  Journal of Neuroscience Nursing 34 (2002):228-236.

[2] Carbajal R, Veerapen S, Couderc, S, Jugie M, Ville Y.  Analgesic effect of breast feeding in term neonates:  randomised controlled trial.  British Medical Journal 326(2003):13.  Available online at:

[3] Shah PS, Aliwalas LI, Shah V. Breastfeeding or breast milk for procedural pain in neonates. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006 Jul 19;3:CD004950.

[4] Felt BT, Mollen E, Diaz S, et al. Behavioral interventions reduce infant distress at immunization Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 154(2000):719-724.

[5] Lindh V, Wiklund U, Blomquist HK, Hakansson S.  EMLA cream and oral glucose for immunization pain in 3-month-old infants.  Pain 104(2003):381-8.

[6] Reis EC, Roth EK, Syphan JL, Tarbell SE, Holubkov R.  Effective pain reduction for multiple immunization injections in young infants. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 157(2003):1115-20.

[7] Gradin M, et al. Pain reduction at venipuncture in newborns: oral glucose compared with local anesthetic cream. Pediatrics 110(2002):1053-7.

[8] Shah V. Ohlsson A.  Randomized trial of analgesic effects of sucrose, glucose, and pacifiers in term neonates.  Journal of Pediatrics. 136(2000):701.

[9] Stevens B, Yamada J, Ohlsson A. Sucrose for analgesia in newborn infants undergoing painful procedures.  Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004;(3):CD001069.

[10] Brady-Fryer B, Wiebe N, Lander JA. Pain relief for neonatal circumcision.  Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2004 Oct 18;(4):CD004217.

[11] Jacobs J, Jimenez LM, Gloyd SS, Gale JS, Crothers D.  Treatment of acute childhood diarrhea with homeopathic medicine:  a randomized trial in Nicaragua.  Pediatrics 93(1994):719-25.

[12]Jacobs J, Jimenez LM, Malthouse S, Chapman E, Crothers D, Masuc M, Jonas WB.  Homeopathic treatment of acute childhood diarrhea:  results from a clinical trial in Nepal.  Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 6(2000):131-9.


Written and compiled by Kyla Boyse, R.N.  Reviewed by faculty and staff at the University of Michigan

Updated February 2007

U-M Health System Related Sites:
U-M Pediatrics

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