Vincent B. Young-Research Summary
Our group is interested in the role bacteria play
in acute and chronic gastrointestinal (GI) illness.
To this end, we study the role of what would traditionally
be considered “pathogenic bacteria” in
gastrointestinal illness. In addition, we also examine
how the population structure of the indigenous GI
microbiota can influence the host-pathogen interaction
and how changes in the community structure of the
indigenous microbiota itself can lead to pathogenic
states. Specific areas of investigation include:
MURINE MODELS OF INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE
The bacterium Helicobacter hepaticus have been implicated
as a trigger of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in
immune-altered mice. We have been investigating how
H. hepaticus can circumvent normal protective immune
responses and in turn how this leads to the development
of IBD in immune-altered mice.
GASTROINTESTINAL MICROBIAL ECOLOGY
The bacterial community of the gut is part of a
complex ecosystem. A significant proportion of the
members of these bacteria have not been cultured to
date in the laboratory, preventing understanding of
the complete diversity of this ecosystem. The advent
of culture-independent methods to examine the ecology
of this community has provided insight into the role
it plays in various disease processes. We have investigated
the role the gut microbial community plays in the
development of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in humans.
We are also defining the changes in the GI microbiota
related to H. hepaticus-induced IBD and determining
if probiotic organisms exert their beneficial effect
via changes in the gut microbiota.
Chang JY, Antonopoulos DA, Kalra A, Tonelli A, Khalife
WT, Schmidt TM, Young VB. Decreased diversity of the
fecal microbiome in recurrent Clostridium difficile-associated
diarrhea. J Infect Dis 197 (3): 435-438, 2008.
Tonelli AR, Khalife WT, Cao M, Young VB. Spherules,
hyphae, and air-crescent sign. Am J Med Sci 335 (6):
Eaton KA, Friedman DI, Francis GJ, Tyler JS, Young
VB, Haeger J, Abu-Ali G, Whittam TS. Pathogenesis
of renal disease due to enterohemorrhagic Escherichia
coli in germ-free mice. Infect Immunity 76 (7): 3054-3063,
Walk, S.T., and Young, V.B. (2008) Emerging insights
into antibiotic-associated diarrhea and Clostridium
difficile infection through the lens of microbial
ecology. Review Interdisciplinary Perspectives on
Infect. Dis. vol. 2008, Article ID 125081, 7 pages.
Tran, M.P., Caldwell-McMillan, M., Khalife, W.T.,
and Young, V.B. (2008) Streptococcus intermedius causing
infective endocarditis and abscesses: a report of
three cases and review of the literature. BMC Infect.
Antonopoulos DA, Huse SM, Morrison HG, Schmidt TM,
Sogin ML, Young VB. Reproducible Community Dynamics
of the Gastrointestinal Microbiota following Antibiotic
Perturbation. Infect Immunity 77 (6): 2367-2375, 2009.
Garner CD, Antonopoulos DA, Wagner B, Duhamel GE,
Keresztes I, Ross DA, Young VB, Altier C. Perturbation
of the Small Intestine Microbial Ecology by Streptomycin
Alters Pathology in a Salmonella enterica Serovar
Typhimurium Murine Model of Infection. Infect Immun
77 (7): 2691-2702, 2009.
Harris L, Senagore P, Young VB, McCabe LR. Inflammatory
bowel disease causes reversible suppression of osteoblast
and chondrocyte function in mice. Am J Physiol-Gastrointest
Liver Physiol 296 (5): G1020-G1029, 2009.
Chick DA, Friedman HP, Young VB, Solomon D. Relationship Between COMLEX and USMLE Scores Among Osteopathic Medical Students who Take Both Examinations. Teach Learn Med 22 (1): 3-7, 2010.
Hao YB, Senn T, Opp JS, Young VB, Thiele T, Srinivas G, Huang SK, Aronoff DM. Lethal toxin is a critical determinant of rapid mortality in rodent models of Clostridium sordellii endometritis. Anaerobe 16 (2): 155-160, 2010.
Chick DA, Friedman HP, Young VB, Solomon D. Relationship Between COMLEX and USMLE Scores Among Osteopathic Medical Students Who Take Both Examinations (vol 22, pg 3, 2010). Teach Learn Med 22 (2): 165-165, 2010.
Robinson CJ, Bohannan BJM, Young VB. From Structure to Function: the Ecology of Host-Associated Microbial Communities. Microbiol and Molec Biol Rev 74 (3): 453-+, 2010.
Chick DA, Friedman HP, Young VB, Soloman D. Untitled Response. Teach Learn Med 22 (4): 326-326, 2010.
Walk ST, Blum AM, Ewing SAS, Weinstock JV, Young VB. Alteration of the Murine Gut Microbiota During Infection with the Parasitic Helminth Heligmosomoides polygyrus. Inflamm Bowel Dis 16 (11): 1841-1849, 2010.
Wang YW, Antonopoulos DA, Zhu XR, Harrell L, Hanan I, Alverdy JC, Meyer F, Musch MW, Young VB, Chang EB. Laser capture microdissection and metagenomic analysis of intact mucosa-associated microbial communities of human colon. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 88 (6): 1333-1342, 2010.
Dave M, Johnson LA, Walk ST, Young VB, Stidham RW, Chaudhary MN, FunNell J, Higgins PDR. A randomised trial of sheathed versus standard forceps for obtaining uncontaminated biopsy specimens of microbiota from the terminal ileum. Gut eFIRST date: 14 FEB 2011.
Nagalingam NA, Kao JY, Young VB. Microbial Ecology of the Murine Gut Associated with the Development of Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Colitis. Inflamm Bowel Dis 17 (4): 917-926, 2011.
Eaton KA, Opp JS, Gray BM, Bergin IL, Young VB. Ulcerative Typhlocolitis Associated With Helicobacter mastomyrinus in Telomerase-Deficient Mice. Vet Pathol 48 (3): 713-725, 2011.
Dave M, Johnson LA, Walk ST, Young VB, Stidham RW, Chaudhary MN, FunNell J, Higgins PDR. A randomised trial of sheathed versus standard forceps for obtaining uncontaminated biopsy specimens of microbiota from the terminal ileum. Gut 60 (8): 1043-1049, 2011.
Zhao JC, Li J, Schloss PD, Kalikin LM, Raymond TA, Petrosino JF, Young VB, LiPuma JJ. Effect of Sample Storage Conditions on Culture-Independent Bacterial Community Measures in Cystic Fibrosis Sputum Specimens. J Clin Microbiol 49 (10): 3717-3718, 2011.
Walk ST, Jain R, Trivedi I, Grossman S, Newton DW, Thelen T, Hao YB, Songer JG, Carter GP, Lyras D, Young VB, Aronoff DM. Non-toxigenic Clostridium sordellii: Clinical and microbiological features of a case of cholangitis-associated bacteremia. Anaerobe 17 (5): 252-256, 2011.
Young VB. The intestinal microbiota in health and disease. Curr Opin Gastroenterol 28 (1):63-69, 2012.
Mason KL, Downward JRE, Falkowski NR, Young VB, Kao JY, Huffnagle GB. Interplay between the Gastric Bacterial Microbiota and Candida albicans during Postantibiotic Recolonization and Gastritis. Infection Immunity 80 (1):150-158, 2012.